The name more specifically describes the different Arab or Berber states that controlled these territories at various times between and , though the. Al-Andalus, Muslim kingdom that occupied much of the Iberian Peninsula from CE until the collapse of the Spanish Umayyad dynasty in the. Although the word al-Andalus acquires different nuances in Arab sources, the concept of al-Andalus refers to the territory of the Iberian Peninsula under. While many different styles of music were played separately in Al-Andalus, it is difficult to say to what extent these musical traditions. Al-Andalus is especially significant because it brought an Islamic presence directly into Europe, which took over nearly all of Spain for a. quista) of the Iberian Peninsula, because for many Arabs-Syrians, Egyptians, Moroc cans, and others-al-Andalus (medieval Muslim Spain) holds a special. The overarching purpose of this work is to elucidate as clearly as possible the many different types of musical interactions that took place in medieval Iberia. By analyzing their writings and the works of various Ismāʿīlī authors, Michael Ebstein unearths the many links that connect the thought of Ibn Masarra and Ibn. As in many areas of pre-modern history, the study of medieval Islamic history has been critically hindered by the lack of available evidence. For these reasons, themes of power, conquest, religious and linguistic difference and loss are an integral part of narratives about al-Andalus. Many of these.